By example, there is no space to build a school in a dome A, but dome B is near and have one.
Can colonists benefit of service in another dome (there are not living in)?
As of the Opportunity update, yes!
You can build passages between domes. A colonist can work or use service buildings in any dome that is connected directly to their home dome. However, colonists receive a small penalty to comfort received or their job performance if they have to travel to another dome.