The question stands for itself. I’m especially interested in skeletons, but I like to keep the topic general.
I something to get skeletons from a monster spawner go up and fall, but they still need a few hits to die, so I would like to know how high I need to let them fall so that they would only need one more hit.
Fall damage is calculated by the following formula:
Fall Damage = number of blocks – 3
1 damage is half a heart. (As is 1 health)
Using this formula and a list of Mob Healths, you can figure out the maximum height from which each mob can fall while staying alive. Simply subtract 1 from a mob’s health and add 3!
For example, a Skeleton has 10 hearts (20 health). This means it can take 19 damage without dying. Using the fall damage formula, we can see that the maximum height a Skeleton can fall from without dying is 22.
An Enderman, on the other hand, has 20 hearts (40 health). That means an Enderman can survive a 42 block fall!